Long-term monitoring of the deep-sea environment becomes a necessary means for human to analyze and understand the marine ecosystem and the transformation process of the marine environment. The deep-sea long-term resident autonomous underwater vehicle(LRAUV) system is an effective equipment to realize long-term monitoring of the deep-sea environment, and becomes a research hot-spot in the deep-sea field in recent years. After combing and summarizing previous studies, the meaning and working mode of the LRAUV system are introduced in this paper. And the application fields of the LRAUV systems are analyzed and prospected. Then, the LRAUV systems at home and abroad are reviewed, including their configuration, functions and technical parameters, and their development trends are summarized. Finally, the research status, difficulties and future development directions of key technologies of the LRAUV system including long-term survival, docking station supporting, AUV autonomous docking, energy supplement and data transmission, and detection operations, are summarized and analyzed.