Abstract：A precise attitude control method is designed based on ESO (extended state observer) for the unmanned helicopter to reject disturbances caused by the model parameter uncertainty and electromagnetic interference. The uncertain part of the attitude channel and the external compound disturbance are considered as the lumped disturbance, which is estimated in real time by the designed ESO, and is eliminated by introducing a state feedback controller. The experiment results show that the attitude angle can be rapidly tracked from 0° to 5° in 0.1 s without overshoot. Finally, the designed controller is applied to the self-designed high-precision unmanned system, and the fully autonomous fixed-point hovering and tracking flight are implemented under the condition that the system parameters vary.
 谭建豪,王耀南,王媛媛,等.旋翼飞行机器人研究进展[J].控制理论与应用,2015,32(10):1278-1286.Tan J H, Wang Y N, Wang Y Y, et al. The research progress of the rotary-wing flight robot[J]. Control Theory & Applications, 2015, 32(10):1278-1286.  de Voogt A J, Uitdewilligen S, Eremenko N. Safety in high-risk helicopter operations:The role of additional crew in accident prevention[J]. Safety Science, 2009, 47(5):717-721.  Marconi L, Naldi R. Aggressive control of helicopters in presence of parametric and dynamical uncertainties[J]. Mechatronics, 2008, 18(7):381-389.  何淼磊,贺继林,周烜亦.小型无人直升机鲁棒飞行控制[J].机器人,2016,38(3):337-342,351. He M L, He J L, Zhou X Y. Robust flight control of a small unmanned helicopter[J]. Robot, 2016, 38(3):337-342,351.  Adiprawita W, Ahmad A S, Sembiring J. Automated flight test and system identification for rotary wing aerial platform using frequency responses analysis[J]. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2007, 4(4):237-244.  Apkarian P, Champetier C, Margni J F. Design of a helicopter output feedback control law using modal and structured-robustness technique[J]. International Journal of Control, 1989, 50(4):1195-1215.  Suzuki S, Hayashi K, Uemura T. Analysis of human pilot behavior at landing with neural network[J]. Journal of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 2001, 49(564):21-26.  Han J Q. From PID to active disturbance rejection control[J]. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2009, 56(3):900-906.  Yao J Y, Jiao Z X, Ma D W. Adaptive robust control of DC motors with extended state observer[J]. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2014, 61(7):3630-3637.  Zhu Z, Xu D, Liu J M, et al. Missile guidance law based on extended state observer[J]. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2013, 60(12):5882-5891.  Sun B S, Gao Z Q. A DSP-based active disturbance rejection control design for a 1-kW H-bridge DC-DC power converter[J]. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2005, 52(5):1271-1277.  Bottasso C L, Luraghi F, Maisano G. Efficient rotorcraft trajectory optimization using comprehensive models by improved shooting methods[J]. Aerospace Science and Technology, 2012, 23(1):34-42.  Bhandari S, Colgren R. 14-DoF linear parameter varying model of a UAV helicopter using analytical techniques[C]//AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit. Reston, USA:AIAA, 2008. DOI:10.2514/6.2008-6523.  Lei X S, Lu P. The adaptive radial basis function neural network for small rotary-wing unmanned aircraft[J]. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2014, 61(9):4808-4815.  Lei X S, Bai L, Du Y H, et al. A small unmanned polar research aerial vehicle based on the composite control method[J]. Mechatronics, 2011, 21(5):821-830.  Franklin G F, Powell J D, Workman M. Digital control of dynamic systems[M]. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, USA:Prentice Hall, 1997:328-337.  Madoński R, Herman P. Survey on methods of increasing the efficiency of extended state disturbance observers[J]. ISA Transactions, 2015, 56:18-27.