According to anatomical structures of human hand, a pneumatic flexible humanoid robot-hand is developed using two types of flexible joints designed by ourselves. The robot hand has five fingers and each finger is composed of three flexible joints in which the body of joint and the driving device are combined into one. The kinematics equations of the robot hand are established employing parameterized homogeneous coordinate transformation matrix. Furthermore, the workspace of the robot hand is analyzed, and on that basis, simulation are performed on the robot hand posing complex postures and grasping objects with different shapes. Subsequently, relative prototype experiments are accomplished on the pneumatic control platform, to verify the function and the dexterity of the robot hand. Also, the clamping forces of all joints on the flexible finger with different ventilation modes are tested. In short, the developed robot hand has high dexterity to complete 13 kinds of actions, like grasp, grip, kneading, screwing and so on, to adapt to the shapes of the objects well.
 Kondo M, Ueda J, Ogasawara T. Recognition of in-hand manipulation using contact state transition for multifingered robot hand control[J]. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 2008, 56(1): 66-81.  Khan S G, Jalani J, Herrmann G, et al. Task space integral sliding mode controller implementation for 4DOF of a humanoid BERT Ⅱ arm with posture control[M]//Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol.68. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2011: 299-310. Niet Van Der O, Reinders-Messelink H A, Bongers R M, et al. The i-LIMB hand and the DMC plus hand compared: A case report[J]. Prosthetics and Orthotics International, 2010, 34(2): 216-220.  Yang J Z, Pitarch E P, Abdel-Malek K. A multi-fingered hand prosthesis[J]. Mechanism and Machine Theory, 2004, 39(6): 555-581.  Nakano Y, Fujie M, Hosada Y. Hitachi's robot hand[J]. Robotics Age, 1984, 6(7): 18-20. Yamaguchi A, Takemura K, Yokota S. A robot hand using electro-conjugate fluid[J]. Sensors and Actuators, A: Physica, 2011, 170(1/2): 139-146. 彭光正, 余麟, 刘昊.气动人工肌肉驱动仿人灵巧手的结构设计[J].北京理工大学学报, 2006, 26(7):593-597. Peng G Z, Yu L, Liu H. Structural design of a dexterous hand actuated by pneumatic artificial muscle[J]. Transactions of Beijing Institute of Technology, 2006, 26(7): 593-597. Schulz S, Pylatiuk C, Kargov A, et al. Progress in the development of anthropomorphic fluidic hands and their appli-cations[C]//IEEE/RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots. Piscataway, USA: IEEE, 2004: 936-941. Wang Z H, Bao G J, Zhang L B, et al. Design and control of integrated pneumatic dexterous robot finger[J]. Journal of Central South University of Technology, 2011, 18(4): 1105-1114.  Geng D X, Zhao J, Zhang L, et al. Structural design and position and posture analysis of five-fingered robot hand based on pneumatic flexible joint[M]//Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol.44-47. Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland: Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2011: 2877-2882. Liu X M, Wang Y Q, Geng D X, et al. Mechanical characteristics analysis on PAM with elongation and torsion[C]//International Conference on Mechatronic Science, Electric Engineering and Computer. Piscataway, USA: IEEE, 2011: 613-616. Liu X M, Wang Y Q, Geng D X, et al. Dynamics investigation on bidirectional active flexible bending joints[M]//Advanced Materials Research, vol.422. Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland: Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2012: 529-533.